“The Prophet waged war ... by means of envoys and letters”
The Qur’an commands, “O Prophet, do jihad against the unbelievers [with the sword] and [against the] hypocrites [with the tongue and evidence] and be harsh against them [through rebuke and hatred]. (Surat at-Tawba 9: 73, Tafsir al-Jalalayn)
Hadith relates, …the Messenger of Allah said, “I was commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and believe in me and what I have brought. When they do that, their blood and property are protected from me except for a right (they owe). Their reckoning is with Allah. (Muslim and al-Bukhari.)
The Qur’an declares to the believers, “You have an excellent model [(read aswa and iswa)] in the Messenger of Allah [--with regard to imitating him in fighting and in remaining firm in his position]….” (Surat al-Ahzab 33:21, al-Jalalayn)
Therefore, in keeping with the above tenets of Islam, sira provides, “The Messenger of God waged war … by sending messengers.” 1
“The Prophet waged war … by means of envoys and letters ….. Abu Bakr waged war … by means of envoys and letters, just as the Apostle of God had done…..” 2
Therefore, “The Messenger of God sent Ali with a hundred and fifty men on a hundred camels and fifty horses.” They set out dispatched to find and raid, “the regions of the families of Hatam.” Short-telling of the account: once finding them, “When the dawn rose, they raided and killed and took prisoners…. Drove the children and women … gathered the sheep and cattle.” 3
“They [the Muslim soldiers] came close to the prisoners and offered them Islam. Those who converted were left, and those who refused were executed.” 4
Such are the stories that tell of the practice of basic Islam; therefore, one either resists it, fights it, or one assists it, supports it in its declared goals.
“The Messenger of God waged war … by sending messengers.” “The Prophet waged war … by means of envoys and letters ….. Abu Bakr waged war … by means of envoys and letters, just as the Apostle of God had done…..” 5
Therefore, history’s record relates, “Abu Bakr wrote to Khalid…. ‘Proceed to Iraq. Start operations in the region of Uballah. Fight the Persians and the people who inhabit their land. Your objective is Hira.’” 6
What’s more, hadith provides, “the Prophet” commanded, “Whoever among you lives after I am gone … you must adhere to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Khulafa. Hold on to it and cling fast to it.” 7
Therefore, “Khalid … wrote to Hormuz, the Persian governor,” as follows:
"Submit to Islam and be safe. Or agree to the payment of the jizyah, and you and your people will be under our protection; else you will have only yourself to blame for the consequences, for I bring you a people who desire death as ardently as you desire life." 8
So reads the record of countless messengers deployed, with the goal, the duty, to “enlarge the boundaries of Islam, spread the … faith.” 9
“Propagate Islam… teach the Koran and the institutions of the Prophet.” 10 Eliminate the warriors—kill those incorrigible in their resistance to Islam; win over, with gifts when called for, those possibly inclined towards Islam.
Take captives. To the malleable of the inhabitants of each region each messenger is dispatched to, deliver the instructions of “the prophet,” as he provided in the letter “The Prophet wrote to the people of Hajar,” in which he instructed, “When my commanders come to you, obey them, reinforce them and help them in carrying out Allah’s plan and his cause.” 11
As such, serving the above goals, envoy after envoy was dispatched. Most were authorized after the order of Abu-Bakr-dispatched Musanna bin Harisa, “chief of the tribe of Bani Bakr,” whom the former, agreeing to the enthusiastic request from the latter, armed him with a “letter of authority,” instructing Musanna to proceed, do as he wished: “Raid the Persians.” 12
In the above letter of Khalid to Hormuz we could say is Islam in a nut- shell.
Here’s yet another “Islam-in-a-nutshell” narrative: “The Messenger of God commanded his companions to go on pilgrimage to fulfill their ‘Umra.” 13
(Seems harmless, simple devout Muslim wishing to tend to piety. What could be troublesome about that, as in, here in the US and elsewhere, all Muslims want to do is practice the tenets of their faith, hence their need for the mosque, the madrassa, the prayer-room, the allowed prayer-times…)
The narrative goes on: “The Messenger of God appointed Najiya b. Jundub al-Aslami over the sacrificial animals. He went, with the animals before him, seeking pasture in the trees.” 14
The narrative continues, “The Messenger of God….sent the cavalry forward….Leading the hundred riders was Muhammad b. Maslama. He sent the weapons ahead and appointed Bashir b. Sa ‘d over them….” Then, “a group of the Quraysh” saw the many horses and weapons, thus, “the Quraysh were afraid.” 15 The said group, clearly suffering the bane of the “unjustifiable” and “unreasonable” Islamophobia.
The narrative continues, “The Messenger of God and his companions set out …. The Messenger of God on his camel al-Qaswa’.” 16
He reaches the Ka ‘ba. As stated, riding his camel al-Qaswa. And the record relates, ibn Rawaha—a messenger seemingly at this moment moved on by the god of Muhammad, acts and speaks thus inspired, thus as the narrative will show, in agreement with the will and thus with the blessing of the “prophet”--takes the reins of al-Qaswa.
“The Muslims have lined up for him” [“the Messenger of God”], continues the narrative, “Then he draws near the corner …. The end of his cloak draped under his right arm and over his left shoulder.” And doing what all Muslims are commanded to do, thus doing as their “prophet” did, are “The Muslims … their garments draped similarly. “ 17
Then, as Tabari renders the account, “the Messenger of God entered Mecca on that lesser pilgrimage … while Abdallah b. Rawahah was holding his camel’s nose and reciting:
Make way, ye sons of unbelievers, for him:
I am a witness that he is His Messenger.
Make way: for all good is in His Messenger.
O Lord, I believe in what he says.
I know that God’s truth is in accepting it.
We have killed in accordance with its interpretation,
As we have killed you in accordance with its revelation,
With striking that removes the head from its resting place
And makes friend forget his friend. 18
And the Waqidi narrative of the event reads this way:
Abdullah b. Rawaha says:
“Get out of his way you sons of unbelievers.
Indeed I witness that he is the Messenger of God.
Truly, every good thing is in his way.
We fought you on the basis of his interpretation
Just as we fought you on his revelation.
With strokes that remove heads from shoulders
Making friend unmindful of friend.”
‘Umar b. al-Kattab said, “O Ibn Rawaha!” The Messenger of God said, “O ‘Umar, indeed I can hear!” and he kept ‘Umar quiet.” 19
Indeed. “The Messenger of God,” clearly, with that rebuke of ‘Umar, exercising his practice of silencing those who would oppose “Allah and His Messenger,” and those who would silence the herald proclaiming the message of Islam—the message of Islamic conquest. But why that message declared then? Why such a declaration from these “peaceful Muslims,” the Quraysh no doubt must have mused. Muhammad promised us, they must have murmured among themselves, he and his following were only coming to fulfill their duty of Umra.
Indeed. That was year seven.
In year nine, “the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, decided to launch a campaign against Makkah.” Therefore, “he sent Abu Qatadah Ibn Rib ‘I with eight men to attack Batn Idam …. The object of the Apostle of Allah was to leave the people guessing that his aim was in that direction….” And “The Apostle of Allah …. Directed his attention to Makkah.” 20
Short-story told: “The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, forced his entry into Makkah. Then the people embraced Islam willingly or unwillingly.” 21
Thus, so spread the influence-soon-cum-rule of Islam. Therefore, to one more account among the countless like-kind; in the words of envoy Sahabi al-Mughirah ibn-Shu ‘bah, the unnegotiable basics of Islam are stated, the story of Islam told:
“Allah has sent us his Prophet by following and obeying whom we are made prosperous, and he has ordered us to fight those who differ from our faith ‘Until they pay tribute out of hand and in a humble state’. We, therefore, call thee to the worship of Allah alone and the belief in his Prophet, which if thou shouldst [sic] do, well and good; otherwise, the sword will decide between us.” 22
Therefore, “Shurahbil conquered all the provinces of the Jordan [al-Urdunn] by force, with the exception of Tiberias, whose inhabitants came to terms, agreeing to give up one-half of their homes and churches.” 23
Therefore, “Shurahbil took easy possession of all the cities of the Jordan with their fortifications, which, with no resistance, capitulated on terms similar to those of Tiberias. Thus did he take possession of Baisan … subdue the district of the Jordan and all its land.” 24
Therefore, “Khalid ibn-al-Walid passed through Zandward … reduced it; he also reduced Durna and its territory, which capitulated after one hour’s shooting….” 25
“Khalid then proceeded …. to al-Hirah… was met by ‘Abd-al-Masih ibn-‘Amr ibn-Kais inb-Haiyan ibn-Bukailah of the Azd ….These men made terms with Khalid, stipulating that they pay 100,000 dirhams per year… that they act as spies for the Moslems against the Persians.” And Khalid agreeing, he “would not destroy any of their churches or citadels.” 26
And again, the narrative of old man, ‘Abd-al-Masih, who, the record relates, “appeared before Khalid.”
“The two … discussed the question of peace and it was agreed that 100,000 [dirhams] be offered the Moslems every year….It was also stipulated that they seek no evil for the Muslims and that they act as spies against the Persians.” 27
Much the same story told is in this narrative of the capitulation of the people of Banikiya: “Khalid then sent Jarir ibn-‘Abdallah al-Bajali to the people of Banikiya. Jarir was met by Busbuhra ibn-Saluda, who refused to fight and proposed to make peace. Jarir made terms with him….” Story after story of much the same told: “Khalid arrived in al-Hirah, its inhabitants made terms without offering any resistance.” 28
Therefore, “ ‘Umar wrote to Sa ‘d instructing him to send to the magnate of the Persians a delegation to invite him to Islam. Accordingly …. A long conversation followed in which they [the Muslim delegation dispatched] said, ‘Our Prophet has promised us the conquest of your land.’” 29
Therefore, as “al-Wakidi” related, “a group of Persians, planting their banner firmly in the ground, said, ‘We shall not leave our position until we die;’ upon which Salman ibn-Rabi ‘ah-l-Bahili made an attack and killed them, carrying their banner away.” 30
Therefore, “Sa ‘d and the Moslems went and occupied Sabat…. they assembled in the city of Bahurasir….The inhabitants of the city fought against them until they could offer no more resistance, at which the Moslems entered the city…. The city was … reduced… the Persian King, resolved to flee….” 31
These are not accounts of the works of “ISIS,” nor the telling of the deeds of “Islamic Extremist.” These are, as stated, the chronicles of the Muslims, doing what Muslims are “Allah and His Messenger” commanded to do: help the “Prophet,” support him in what he brought, thus, as will be spoken to again below, do ones level best to see to it, that written on the pages of Qur’an comes to fruition.
Such is the duty of every Muslim able to reckon, reason, and act. Because, as the men of knowledge in Islam affirm, “The Forward Progress of Islam does not Stop with the Death of Anyone.” 32
Therefore, understood, thus taught, preached and practiced in Islam, is the duty of every able-bodied Muslim to do their best in carrying out the above mission of their “beloved ‘Holy Prophet.’” Moreover, not only did the death of their “prophet” not release the Muslims from the duty of following his practices and expending themselves in his alleged mission, it made them even more responsible to it and for it. “It became their duty to continue to do the job of the Messenger of Allah – to spread the message of Islam to all mankind.” 33
Pivotal to that duty, “job,” and message: that cited above: the “Messenger of Allah” declaring, “I was commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and believe in me and what I have brought. When they do that, their blood and property are protected from me….” (Muslim and al-Bukhari.)
As is evidenced in, on the heels of the death of “the Messenger of Allah,” Abu Bakr insisting, “Usaamah’s army” execute the orders “Allah’s Messenger” had issued for them during his final days. That is the context in which the above “duty to continue to … spread the message of Islam” is spoken to, by the men of knowledge and understanding of Islam.
“For Abu Bakr stated that, in sending out Usaamah’s army, he was trying his best to adhere closely to the Sunnah of the Prophet.” 34 Doing so, irrespective of the fact, upon the death of the alleged prophet, “a wild wave of disbelief-after-disbelief moved across the length and breadth of Arabia.” 35
Thus, “the dangers that both he [Abu Bakr] and the Muslims faced” 36 were many. That fact notwithstanding, “Abu Bakr stated in no uncertain terms that his primary goal was to execute the orders of the Messenger of Allah.” 37
“To Abu Bakr, staying alive was not as important as obeying the Prophet’s command.” 38 And for the same reason, good Muslims share Abu Bakr’s stated devotion and priority.
For the Qur’an provides: “‘it is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error.’ (Qur’an 33: 36)” 39
“Allah,” I must press here, is the god of the alleged “Prophet of Islam.” The spirit that authored the Qur’an. The god who declares of the Christian message of salvation: such is falsehood.
That god, according to the “Allah-only” guided words spoken by the alleged “Holy prophet of Islam,” cursed the Jews and the Christians. Loathed them. Declared that not only he cursed them but that “the cursers [sic] curse them.”
“They say, ‘Our hearts are uncircumcised.’ Rather, Allah has cursed them for their unbelief,” declares Qur’an. (Surat al-Baqara 2: 88) On that tafsir provides, “ “ They” are the Jews.” 40
“When a Book does come to them from Allah –confirming what is with them--… they reject it. Allah’s curse in on the unbelievers.” (ibid, 2: 89.) Again, tafsir on that provides, “ “Them” means the Jews and the “Book” here is the Qur’an while “what is with them” refers to the Torah and Gospel.” 41 Thus the “unbelievers” referred to therein, Jews and Christians.
Speaking to the same, the Qur’an declares, “Those We have given the Book recognize him [(Muhammad)] as they recognize their own sons [because they have his description in their books].” (2: 146, al-Jalalayn), Therefore, according to Qur’anic doctrine, because they hide that “truth,” hide that which the Qur’an states is in their books (the Torah and the Gospel), they “knowingly conceal the truth.” (2:146.)
“Those who hide the Clear Signs and Guidance We have sent down,” declares the Qur’an, “after We have made it clear to people of the Book, Allah curses them, and the cursers curse them.” (2: 159, al-Qurtubi cited rendition.)
In that curse, as tafsir makes clear, it is clear, the god of the Qur’an, he want’s nothing to do with Jews and Christians, he wants them wiped out, unless and until they repent and believe in and submit to the guidance of the “prophet of Islam.”
Thus, Tafsir Al-Qurtubi provides, “Allah reports that anyone who hides the Clear Signs and Guidance is cursed.” 42
Speaking to that curse on “unbelievers,” Imam al-Qurtubi provides, “the root of ‘la ‘n’ (curse) has the meaning of ‘driving away and putting far away.’” 43
Ma’ariful Qur’an provides, on those who earn that curse, “ ‘la ‘nah,’” being the Arabic Qur’anic word, “translated as ‘curse’ in absence of a more exact equivalent) means being far removed from the mercy of Allah, extremely debased and disgraced.” It continues, “For such accursed ones admonitions are very stern.” 44
“Very stern,” provides the learned men in Islam, as in “The Holy Qur’an says: (The accursed, wherever they be, are to be caught and killed massacre-like.) (33:61) This is their disgrace in the present life.” 45
Thus, of no surprise, hadith provides, “The Prophet in his fatal illness said, ‘Allah cursed the Jews and the Christians…” 46
Same Sahih, in “The Book of Al-Maghazi,” provides as follows:
The ailment of the Allah’s Messenger became worse (on Thursday) and he said, “Fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray,”… Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, ‘Turn Al-Mushrikun [polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad] out of the Arabian Peninsula….” 47
Ibn Sa ‘d tells of that event this way: “ The last words that the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, uttered were:
‘May Allah kill the Jews and the Christians….” 48
Thus, no wonder at all, Qur’an, qualifying as disbelievers all who disbelieve in the message brought by the alleged prophet, Muhammad, it states, “ … those who are unbelievers and die unbelievers, the curse of Allah is upon them and that of the angels and all mankind.”(Surat al-Baqara: 2:161) And on that Imam al-Qurtubi provides, “Ibn al-‘Arabi … said, ‘ I consider it valid … to curse an unbeliever on the basis of his outward state and it is permitted to fight and kill him.” 49 “It is repayment,” states the regarded work, “for his disbelief and his display of it.” 50
Clearly, “Allah” was by no means kidding when he commanded, “O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you….” (Surah 9. At-Tawbah , as cited in Tafsir ibn Kathir.)
On that the stated revered Tafsir provides as follows:
Allah commands the believers to fight the disbelievers, the closets in area to the Islamic state, then the farthest.
This is why the Messenger of Allah started fighting the idolators [sic] in the Arabian Peninsula. When he finished with them and Allah gave him control over Makkah, Al-Madinah, At –Ta if, Yemen, Yamamah, Hajr, Khaybar, Hadramawt and other Arab provinces, and the various Arab tribes entered Islam in large crowds, he then started fighting the Romans who were the closest in area to the Arabian Peninsula, and as such, had the most right to be called to Islam, especially since they were from the People of the Scripture. 51
Speaking to the same concept, the same source provides, after the death of the “Messenger of Allah,” as we will return to here shortly, speak to more broadly on, “On behalf of the Prophet, Abu Bakr delivered what he was entrusted with….he started preparing the Islamic armies to fight the Roman cross worshippers.” 52
And the record on such provides, “Allah opened the lands for him … brought down Caesar … Kisra and those who obeyed them….Abu Bakr spent their treasures in the cause of Allah, just as the Messenger of Allah had foretold would happen.” 53
What’ more, “That mission continued after Abu Bakr at the hands of he whom Abu Bakr chose to be his successor.” 54
As such, “With Umar, Allah humiliated the disbelievers, suppressed the tyrants and hypocrites … opened the eastern and western parts of the world. The treasures of various countries … brought to ‘Umar from near and far….” 55
Umar, the record relates, was assassinated “while he was leading the Muslims in prayer.” Therefore, after him, “the Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar … chose … Uthman bin ‘Aftan.” 56
And “During ‘Uthman’s reign, Islam wore it widest garment,” provides tafsir, “and Allah’s unequivocal proof was established in various parts of the world over the necks of the servants.” 57
“The pure religion reached its deepest aims against Allah’s enemies,” provides tafsir. And those deepest aims were, are, “whenever Muslims overcame an Ummah [community], they moved to the next one, and then the next one….” 58
And that is precisely why and what the Allah-honoring, thus the Allah-obeying are and what they are doing here.
Fulfilling the words of the Qur’an: “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers, and merciful among themselves.” (48:29) Working to bring to fruition, “It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it superior over all religions even though the idolators [sic] hate (it).” (9:33) Thus doing so in obeying,
“O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you.” (9:123)
In other words, they are fulfilling the duty of the Muslim to carry on the “Prophet’s mission,” to fight those who disbelieve “until … and unless.”
The believer is spending himself/herself, as willing envoys, representing “the cause,” working to bring to fruition, “As for those who disbelieve, I will punish them with a harsh punishment in this world [by their being killed, being captured and paying the jizyah], and in the Next World [by the fire]. They will have no helpers [to defend them against it].” (Surat Al-Imran : :56, al-Jalalayn.)
Jews and Christians, chief among those “disbelievers,” for reasons detailed above.
That is what the god of Muhammad states concerning the Jews and Christians.
Whereas, the God of the Bible, moving on the prophet Zechariah, caused that prophet to declare of Zion and of the God who claimed Zion as His own, “he that toucheth [sic] you toucheth the apple of his eye.” (Zechariah 2:8, KJV.)
Moreover, that God--the God of the Hebrew Scriptures, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob--He said of Israel: “I would no more reject my people than I would change my laws of night and day, of earth and sky, I will never abandon the Jews….” (Jeremiah, 33: 25, 26; Living Bible Paraphrased)
He said to them, “Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness [sic] have I drawn thee.” (Ibid, 31: 3, KJV.)
He further declared, “Is Ephraim my dear son? Is he a pleasant child? For since I spake [sic] against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my bowels are troubled for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord.” (ibid: 20.)
What’s more, with passionate heart, concerning Zion, He stated, “Can a woman forget her suckling child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee.” (Isaiah 49:16, KJV.)
He cried, “Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands; thy walls are continually before me.” (ibid : 17.)
And it is, in part, through that inimitable example of unfailing love and faithfulness that the Christian knows the surety of the unfailing love of God, so too, his everlasting faithfulness.
Yet of all that, the god of Muhammad declares, such is falsehood.
“Allah’s Messenger,” and thus, all who revere, follow, and obey that alleged messenger, he was and they are commanded to fight all who worship other than the said god of Muhammad. They are commanded, as cited above, “to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah.”
Therefore, they are commanded to fight all non-Muslims, unless and until all reject other beliefs, and acknowledge the supremacy of the message that Muhammad allegedly brought. Thus reject the above statements from the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; rule those words as rubbish. Then, tossing the above words of God Almighty in the garbage, instead, “believe in” and embrace that which the “prophet of Islam” brought.
And unless one does that, every able-bodied Muslim is Allah-obligated to do his or her part, be that overtly or covertly, front-line “soldier” or mere supporter of that, in seizing, with the “leave-of-Allah,” your freedom, your property, your life and spill your blood.
That, Sir or mam, is Islam.
Moreover, because that is basic fact, we are fools, fools, fools to allow the Muslim the freedom to practice here in our nation, the tenets of their faith. Fools!
Thus to see the above stated desires of the god of Muhammad fulfilled, “The Prophet waged war … by means of envoys and letters ….. Abu Bakr waged war … by means of envoys and letters, just as the Apostle of God had done….” Thus, devout Muslims following the blueprint they are commanded to follow—sunna—wage war, in the way of Allah, by means of envoys and letters.
It mattered little, the name of the envoy, or the precise wording of the letter; the mission, the message was always the same; thus, so too were the results.
The “prophet” sent a letter to “Musaylima the liar,” “[‘the apostle’] he wrote …: ‘From Muhammad the apostle of God to Musaylima the liar. “Peace be upon him who follows the guidance.”’” 59
Tafsir makes clear precisely what that statements means: ““Peace be upon those who follow the guidance. [They alone will be safe from punishment.]” (Surat TaHa: 20:47, al-Jalalayn) In other words, only those who follow the Muhammad-provided guidance of the Qur’an will be those free from being amongst the summoned to “Allah’s painful punishment.”
What’s more, in each area the Muslims entered and subdued, there they established mosque and training centers to train and rear the next generation of Muslims. Teaching them, rearing them on the guidance of the Qur’an, thus in the traditions of the “prophet.” Thus, ever tailoring, molding the pliable, preserving in them the integrity of the model as well as the mission of the envoy, so too, the message of the “letter.” Thus effecting, in region after region, the same end intended.
As the following speaks to:
…. the Messenger of God (SAAS) wrote to ‘Amr b. Hazam when he sent him to Yemen to give religious instructions to its people, to teach them the sunnah, the orthodox practices of Islam, and collect their alms payments….
“ ‘ He wrote, “ In the name of God, the most Merciful and Beneficent. This is a document from God and His Messenger….
“ ‘ “ ‘He commands ….
“ ‘ “ ‘Any Jew or Christian who genuinely accepts Islam and properly performs in accord with the faith of Islam shall be (considered) a believer, and shall enjoy all the rights and obligations they have. Those who remain in their Judaism or Christianity shall not be made to change their faith. But each of the their adults, whether male or female, free or slave, shall pay …. Those who fulfill this shall have the protection of God and His Messenger; those who refuse shall be considered the enemies of God, of His Messenger and of all believers….’”’” 60
Thus the stories that fill the pages of Islamic history.
Account after account of those who once resisted Islam and the way of the alleged “Arabian Prophet,” who then “conceded,” “surrendered,” “capitulated” to the terms handed to them by the Muslims. Those who, weary from resisting, “promised obedience” to, “adopted the rule” and the conditions “imposed” upon them by their new masters, others doing so in “conceded to pay the jiza’.” But always, the same story is told: those who proved incorrigible in their rejection of Islam, they were fought. Slaughtered, unless, somehow, they manage to flee their home and land with their lives
As is short-told in—and countless other narratives kin to it: “Abu Bakr sent Jarir b. ‘Abdallah …. So
Jarir went out, carrying out that which Abu Bakr had commanded him to do. No one opposed him except some men leading a small number [of followers]; so he killed them.” 62
Narrative after narrative reads much the same. Change the name of the Conquering Commander, so too, the names of the vanquished tribe and location and the means and manner in which their surrender was expressed, but the other details remain much the same as those recorded in the above-cited, as those relayed in the following snapshot: “… ‘Iyad dispatched Suhayl and Abdallah to al-Ruha’, whose inhabitants surrendered to them by consenting to pay the jizyah. All other people followed their example, al-Jazirah thus being the simplest region to keep under control and the easiest to conquer.” 63
The record adds, “All this having been so easy was not only an ignominy for those conquered but also for those Muslims who stayed on among them.” 64
Therefore, from such ignominy, the following poem flowed:
Who will tell the world that our forces together have conquered Jazirah in days of fierce battle?
They gathered those wanting to help from the region,
Dispelling from Hims the dark threat of besiegers.
Our mighty warriors, the mighty and noble, have driven
The enemy away, leaving cleft skulls behind them.
Defeating the kings of Jazirah, but failing to conquer those people who made it to Syria. 65
“Who will tell the world” of the fierce battle that ended in the fall of al-Jazirah to Islam?
No one will— there was no such battle. Therefore, as cited above, the story of al-Jazirah’s fall to Islam told is the story told of far too many a tribe, a people, a township, once Islam pressed its way into it.
The story of agreeing to terms presented by the Muslims. Thus the story of surrender after surrender, capitulation after capitulation, because it is impossible to defeat an enemy one refuses to face and to fight.
And that enemy was, is, called Islam.
It is called the way, the “religion” of the alleged “Prophet of Islam.” It is “the Prophet and his army,” fighting in the way of Allah, fighting for the cause of Allah. Hence, fighting to insure they do as they are commanded to do, as did Abu Bakr, as touched on above, as will be spoken to again shortly, as all good Muslims are determined and careful to do: fulfill the command of the Messenger of God.
And all who refuse to identify that foe as just that, fight just that, arrest its advancing, will, at some point, capitulate to its rules.
Then their story of capitulation will just be added in to the same of countless such accounts recorded, such as the following:
…in the year 9 H, the Messenger of Allah set out with a large army towards Ash-Sham (Syria and surrounding regions).
The army took Tabook, but no fighting took place between the Muslims and the Romans, nor did any fighting take place between the Muslims and the Arab tribes that inhabited the region. Instead, the rulers of nearby cities decided to sign peace treaties with the Prophet, and as a result of those treaties, they agreed to pay the jizyah tax to the Muslims.
The journey was fruitful in many other ways as well: for example, the Muslims were able to put on a strong show of force against the Romans, who were unwilling to fight against the Prophet and his army. 66
The conquest of al-Jazirah and others in the surrounding region tell much the same story; the following excerpts short-tell it: “at first, the people of al-Jazirah helped the Byzantine and incited them against the Muslims.” 67
“But then …. They dispersed to their regions and their brethren ...they deserted the Byzantines.” 68
“Heraklius,” provides the record, “asked the people of al-Jazirah for help and sought to rouse the inhabitants of Hims” to fight against the advancing Muslim troops. 69 But the people of Hims only responded with a letter, which read, “We have made a pact with them [the Muslims] and we fear that we will not win (if we do as you suggest).” 70
Therefore, “Heraklius marched on Abu ‘Ubaydah …. Abu ‘Ubaydah asked Khalid to come and help him …. the forces from al-Jazirah (rallying with Heraklius)….” 71
“The letter reached ‘Umar while he was on his way to Mecca…. He … sent the following message to Sa‘d: “Abu ‘Ubaydah is under siege ….[Please] send your warriors all over al-Jazirah and harass …. Help Abu ‘Ubaydah with al-Qa ‘qa b. ‘Amr …” 72
“So al-Qa ‘qa went forth,” continues the narrative, “arrived in al-Jazirah … news of that reached the enemy … they scurried back to their (respective) cities, which they tried to reach before the pursuing Muslims.” 73
“Then they dug themselves in and the Muslims descended upon them in their fortifications.” 74
“Then the people of Qinnasrin began to flee with the Byzantines.” 75
“The reinforcements joined the Muslim troops which resulted in not a single enemy warrior escaping to tell what had happened.” 76
“The enemy’s left wing all fled … the last straggler being caught at Marj al-Dibaj.” 77
“This was where they finally ended up, having broken their weapons and thrown down their furred coats to be less encumbered. But they were overtaken … their belongings … confiscated….” 78
“ ‘Iyad marched on al-Jazirah and descended with his troops on al-Ruha’ whose inhabitants concluded a peace treaty with him on the condition they pay the jizyah.” Following the example al-Ruha’ “Harran also concluded a treaty,” agreeing to the same payment. 79
“Then Sa ‘d … moved with the remainder of the Muslim warriors to Dara and went against it until he had conquered it. Abu Musa conquered Nasibin…. Then the people of the region concluded a peace treaty with ‘Uthman b. Abi al-‘As on the condition that they pay the jizyah….” 80
“…’Umar wrote to Sa ‘d instructing him to send al-Qa ‘qa with … reinforcements for Abu ‘Ubaydah …. So the commanders took the road to al-Jazirah …. …Suhayl b. ‘Adi and his army force followed the route along the border garrisons …. … descended upon these people of al-Jazirah … held them surrounded … until they were prepared to make peace with him.” 81
“…because they said to one another, ‘We are (caught) between (two fires: on the one hand … on the other …. How can we survive a war against one as well as against others?’” 82
Therefore, reads the record, “They sent a message … to ‘Iyad…. ‘Iyad decided to look favorably upon their submission and they gave the oath of allegiance to him, which he accepted…. They followed the same procedure in respect of the territories they had taken by force—after which the defeated side gave in—as they used with the dhimmis.” 83
In other words, they agreed to render the jizyah. Pay the tribute their Muslim lords demanded of them.
Another rendition of the conquest of al-Jazirah reads this way:
The second commander to leave … was ‘Abdallah b. ‘Abdallah b. ‘Itban. He traveled … arrived at al-Mawsil … crossed to … Balad. Then proceeded towards Nasibin. Its inhabitants came out to meet him to offer him peace, acting as the people of al-Raqqah had done. Indeed, harboring the same fears as the latter, they had written to ‘Iyad who saw fit to accept their capitulation. Thus … concluded a treaty with them, following the same procedure in respect of the territories … the defeated side gave in… the case of the dhimmis.
When the inhabitants of al-Raqqah and Nasibin had promised obedience, ‘Iyad joined the forces of Suhayl and ‘Abdullah (b.’Abdullah b. ‘Itban) … marched with all these forces on Harran and conquered all the territory…. … they [the Harranians] protected themselves against potential harm from him by consenting to pay the jizyah…. 84
Therefore, as we read of earlier in this essay, “… ‘Iyad dispatched Suhayl and Abdallah to al-Ruha’, whose inhabitants surrendered to them by consenting to pay the jizyah. All other people followed their example, al-Jazirah thus being the simplest region to keep under control and the easiest to conquer.” 85
As stated, different envoy, different destination, same mission, same message, same results awarded the Muslims:
“complete submission to Islam,” “nothing but strict surrender to Islam,” to the Christians of Taghlib, “do not bring up … (newborn) children in a Christian fashion and accept it when they do embrace Islam.” Accept “the condition imposed….” “‘Pay the jizyah.’” 86
In other words, render to Islam the tribute the Muslims demands “we” render to it. Pay it the respect the adherents to it demand we pay it. Be assured, when we yield that demanded –for payment, we are rendering our jizyah.
We can say all we want to, no, that is by no means jizyah. We will never pay jizyah.
Your “statement” notwithstanding, I assure you, be it overtly or tacitly, the Muslims say of us and to us, just as sira provides ‘Umar said to the Taghlib delegation as they agreed to the “conditions” for safety that the Muslims imposed upon them. In doing so, they pleaded, “take something from us, but do not call it jiza’ [sic].” To that ‘Umar answered,
“As for us, we call it jiza’; you call it whatever you want.” 87
“The Prophet waged war … by means of envoys and letters ….. Abu Bakr waged war … by means of envoys and letters, just as the Apostle of God had done…..”
Hence, from the pages of Sira, concerning the Banu’ L-Harith’s acceptance of Islam, yet another example of the “prophet” waging war with envoys and/or letters:
…the apostle sent Kalid b. al-Walid … to theB. A;-Harith b. Ka ‘b in Najran, and ordered him to invite them to Islam three days before he attacked them. If they accepted then he was to accept it from them; and if they declined he was to fight them. So Khalid set out and came to them, and sent out riders in all directions inviting people to Islam, saying, “If you accept Islam you will be safe,’ so the men accepted Islam and the book of God and the sunna of His prophet, for that was what the apostle of God had ordered him to do if they accepted Islam and did not fight.
Then Khalid wrote to the apostle:
"In the name of God the compassionate, the merciful. To Muhammad the prophet the apostle of God. From Khalid b. al-Walid. Peace be upon you, O apostle of God, and God’s mercy and blessings….You sent me to the B. al-Harith b. Ka ‘b and ordered me when I came to them not to fight them for three days and to invite them to Islam; and if they accepted it to stay with them, and to accept it from them and teach them the institutions of Islam, the book of God, and the sunna of His prophet. I duly came to them and invited them to Islam … as the apostle
ordered me, and I sent riders among them with your message. They have surrendered and have not fought and I am staying among them instructing them in the apostle’s positive and negative commands and teaching them the institutions of Islam and the prophet’s sunna until the apostle writes to me….” 88
To that letter, the record relates, the “apostle” responded, in short, informing Khalid of his pleasure at hearing the B. Harith had surrendered to Islam, “pronounced the shahada.” Instructing Khalid to come to him and to bring with him some of the leaders of the said tribe.
Khalid did as instructed.
Thereupon, the record relates, “When they came to the apostle,” once he had quizzed them a bit on their acceptance of Islam, he said to them, “ If Khalid had not written to me that you had accepted Islam and had not fought I would have thrown your heads beneath your feet.” 89
The options available to the people of the B. Harith, and others, clear.
Such was/is the way of the “Arabian Prophet.” The one all Muslims are commanded to emulate and follow with like-kind works. To, as touched on earlier herein, in his absence, continue on in his work, his mission.
So much so, in fact, was the above the way of “the prophet”; his dying breaths, as mentioned earlier, as sira and maghazi provide, his final ounces of strength, he spent them on giving war plans, orders to envoys and the orders chronicled.
In this instance: messenger: Usamah Ibn Zayd Ibn Harithah. This time around, the letter: written in the hearts of the dispatched troops; chronicled for the record. Mission: “Go to where your father was killed and trample (the enemy) down with your horses.” 90
Goal: heard, stated in their commonly recorded watch-word: “ya Mansur, amit!” 91
[“‘O victorious, slay’ (ya mansur amit).” 92]
And what was the Army of Usaamah doing?
As spoken to above, they were fulfilling their duty to “continue to do the job of the Messenger of Allah – to spread the message of Islam to all mankind.” 93
Spreading the message of Islam by trampling beneath the hoofs of their horse those who disbelieved in their “prophet” and in the message he brought?
Precisely--as we witness today, driver and truck replacing the Muslim cavalryman and his mount.
Call it Usaamah’s army, Muhammad’s army, troops of IS, they are the “Riders” in the cause of Allah, The path of the “Prophet” their devotion, the fulfillment of the words of the Qur’an their goal.
And those with eyes to see and ears to hear see the swirling dust of, hear the certain-sound from the pounding of the hoofs of the said riders’ horses.
Further details of the account of the Sariyyah of Usamah Zayd Ibn Harithah read this way:
On Monday, 26 Safar of the eleventh year from the Hijrah of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, the Apostle of Allah …. called Usamah Ibn Zayd and said to him: Proceed to the place of your father’s assassination and trample them (the enemy) under your horses. I have appointed you commander of this army. Attack the people of Ubna early in the morning and set fire (to their camp). March so quick that you may reach them before the report…. On Wednesday, began the sickness of the Apostle of Allah …. He suffered from fever and headach. On Thursday, he prepared a flag for Usamah, with his own hand. Then he said: Fight in the name of Allah, in the way of Allah, and kill him who disobeys Allah…. There remained none from among the first and leading Muhajirs and prominent al-Ansars, who were not called to join this army. Among them were Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab, Abu ‘Ubaydah Ibn al-Jarrah, Sa ‘d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa ‘id Ibn Zayd, Qatadah Ibn al-Numan and Salamah Ibn Aslam Ibn Herish. 94
Then, the record relates, some of the people talked and said, “This lad is appointed commander over the first of Muhajirs?” Of which, when the “Apostle of Allah” learned of the whispers and complaints, he became enraged. “Came out with a bandage round his head, and a sheet covering him.” Took to the pulpit and their stated, “O people! What is this talk a report of which has reached me, from you about my appointing of Usamah as commander and you had also criticized the appointment of his father.” He continued, “ By Allah, he was created to be the commander, and his son is created to be the commander after him….Both of them are expected to do every thing good….he [Usamah] is one of the best of you….” 95
“Then,” relates the narrative, “he descended (from the minbar/pulpit) … entered his house.” And “The Muslims who were to go with Usamah came to bid farewell to the Apostle of Allah… went to the camp of at al-Jurf.” 96
But then, al-Kabar relates, “the condition of the Apostle of Allah … became serious. But he continued saying: Let the army of Usamah proceed.” And “On Sunday, the pain of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, became very servere [sic].” Hearing of the worsening of “the apostle’s” condition, “Usamah came from his camp, but the Prophet had become unconscious.” 97
The narrative goes on stating, “It was the day when they had given medicine to him.” Unconscious and “speechless” was he. Nonetheless, sira relates, the alleged “prophet,” when Usamah “bent his head and kissed him in that state, “he raised his hands towards heaven and then placed them on Usamah.” And Usamah, the record relates, stated, “I know he was praying for me.” 98
Usamah then returned to his camp. But returned to Medinah the following day to, once more, check on “the apostle’s” condition. On that Monday, reads the narrative, “the Apostle of Allah … showed signs of improvement.” And with the bit of strength he enjoyed then for the said improvement, “He (Prophet) said to him [Usamah], ‘March early in the morning, under the blessing of Allah.”
Therefore, Usamah returned to his al-Jurf camp. Prepared to do just as instructed, and “he ordered the people to march.” 99
Then, “While he intended to mount on his beast,” word arrived, that “the Apostle of Allah was on the verge of death.”
Therefore, once again, Usamah abandoned the mission, returned to Madinah. This time, with him also “came ‘Umar and Abu ‘Ubayday.” 100
And the record relates, with the alleged “apostle” on the verge of death, the three men reached him. “He [ 'the Apostle of Allah'] passed away.”
Therefore, relates the record, “when the sun declined” that Monday, the Muslim forces of Usamah’s army pulled camp. The lot, returning to al-Medinah. “Buraydah Ibn al-Husayb came with the flag of Usamah folded.” He brought that flag, the record states, “to the door of the Apostle of Allah … pitched it there.” 101
But as mentioned earlier in this essay, Abu Bakr was not about to allow the order of the “prophet” to go unfilled. As stated, he was resolute to “execute the orders of the Messenger of Allah.” 102
Because, as mentioned, “To Abu Bakr, staying alive was not as important as obeying the Prophet’s command.” 103
Therefore, once the oath of allegiance had been given to Abu Bakr, reads the narrative, without delay, “he ordered Buraydah Ibn al-Husayb to take the flag to the house of Usamah. Buraydah took it to the site where they had encamped earlier at (al-Jurf).” 104
Therefore, “On the first day of the month of Rabi ‘ al-Akhar of the eleventh year,” the record provides, “ Usamah set out and proceeded against the people of Ubna…. He attacked them and,” as mentioned above,“ their watch-word was; ya Mansur Amit.” 105
Thus carrying out the orders of the “Apostle of Allah,” the last envoy whom the alleged prophet dispatched, Usamah, along with his army, “killed him who met him, enslaved him whom he could, set fire to their boats, and burnt their dwellings, farms and palm-groves which turned into [sic] whirl-wind of smoke.” 106
In other words, they executed the “Prophet’s command.”
Side note: ever wonder, in our years in the so-called war on terror, here in our homeland, cum-all- too- common among us now, the noted “whirl-wind of smoke”? Be assured, such oftentimes is undoubtedly the work of the Allah-obedient, doing just as the Muslim is commanded to do, thus following the sunnah of the “prophet,” thus following the sunnah of he, of those, of whom the “prophet” stated were the” best of you.”
The Waqidi-provided rendition of the account reads much the same, with these few additional details:
When it was Monday, four days from the month of Safar in the year eleven AH, the Messenger of God commanded the people to prepare to raid the Byzantine, and he ordered them to hasten in raiding them….When …it was Tuesday … He called Usama b. Zayd and said, “O Usama, go in the name of God, and with His blessings until you reach the place where your father was killed, and attack them with the horses….Attack the people of Ubna in the moring and be aggressive. And hasten the march so that you arrive ahead of the information….
….and fight those who do not believe in God…. Surely you wll conquer them. Know that Paradise is under to flashing gleam.”
The Muslims who set out with Usama came and bade farewell to the Messenger of Allah … and the Messenger of Allah says [sic], “Carry out the mission of Usama!” Umm Ayman [the mother of Usama] entered … and said, “ O Messenger of God, what if you let Usamah stay in his camp until you get better …. “ The Messenger of God said, “Carry out the mission of Usama.” …..
The Messenger of God died when the sun declined from the meridian, on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi ‘ al-Awwal. ….
When Abu Bakr was appointed caliph he commanded Burayda to go with the banner to the house of Usama, and say that he would never discharge Usama until he raided the Byzantines….
Abu Bakr set out to escort Usama and the Muslims …. Then he said, “I leave your religion and your honesty and the completion of your work in God’s hands. Indeed, I heard the Messenger of God advise you, so fulfill the command of the Messenger of God. I will not command you nor forbid you. Rather I execute the command that the Messenger of God commanded. So set out swiftly….
….Burayda said to Usama, “O Abu Muhammad, indeed, I witnessed the Messenger of God advise your father to invite them to Islam, and if they obeyed him to let them chose—that if they preferred to stay in their land, they will be as the Bedouin Muslims, and there would be nothing for them from the fay or the plunder, unless they struggled with the Muslims; but if they transferred to the land of Islam there would be for them as there was for the Muhajirun.” Usama said, “Thus did the Messenger of God advise my father. But the Messenger of God commanded me and this was his last command to me: To hasten the march and to be ahead of the news. And to raid them, without inviting them, and to destroy and burn.” 107
And to that, Burayda—knowing that there is nothing in Islam that is more important than to obey and follow the command of “The Messenger of God”—he said: “ Listen and obey the command of the Messenger of God.” 108
Thus the record states, “When Usama reached Ubna ….he mobilized his companions and said, “Go and raid …. draw your sword and place it in whoever confronts you.” And “Then he pushed them into the raid. A dog did not bark,” reads the Waqidi narrative, “and no one moved. The enemy did not know except when the army attacked them calling out their slogan, “O Mansur, Kill!” 109
Thus, “He killed those who confronted him and took prisoners those he defeated. He set the borders on fire and their houses and fields and date palm on fire. There arose clouds of smoke, and went around the courtyard with the horses.” 110
Thus, “They attacked what was in their reach, and spent the day packing what they took as plunder.” 111
They did so because, as cited, such was the order of “the Messenger of God.”
They did so, because, as mentioned above, “It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle he is indeed on a clear wrong path. (Q. 33:36 [as cited by Waqidi, P. 550.].)”
Therefore, Mr. President Elect, Trump, beware.
That letter in your hand from the ummah, as spoken to in another post posted at this site--Islam Exposed: Answering The Muslim's Letter To President Elect ...: Muslim's Letter To President Elect Trump--it is there because the Muslim is obeying and carrying out the command of the alleged “Messenger of God.” That letter is a weapon of war. A weapon triggered, discharged against those who dare oppose the teachings of the Qur’an and the sunna of the alleged “prophet of Islam.” Thus those who oppose the expansion of the influence-soon-cum-rule of Islam.
Moreover, the signatory behind each respective signature thereon, he/she is thereby doing his/ her best to obey Allah, thus follow the example of the “Messenger of Allah,” thus fight those who disbelieve in “Allah and His Messenger… until … and unless.”
That Muslim envoy standing before you, the Muslims who sent that letter before you, in their stated actions they are performing their jihad—fighting in the way of Allah, fighting to make Allah’s word supreme. Thus in their stated actions, they are delivering the rebuke spoken of in the opening verse of this post: “…do jihad against the unbelievers [with the sword] and … [with the tongue and evidence] and be harsh against them [through rebuke and hatred]. (Surat at-Tawba 9: 73, al-Jalalayn).
Thus the envoy, thus the letter is sent to incapacitate you and to arrest your resistance to the advancing of the “way of Muhammad.” It is sent to do the same to all here and elsewhere who reject the supremacy of Islam. To do to them as did the thrusted swords of Usama and his army to “the people of Ubna”: stop dead in their tracks anyone who confronts them.
That goal of the envoy, the goal of the senders of that letter, Sir, is to fulfill the words of the Qur’an: to “exalt it” --the guidance of Qur’an, the sunna of the “prophet,” thus the Law of “Allah”—over every other din.” (Surat at-Tawba 9: 33.)
Thus, the Muslim envoy is dispatched, the Muslim letter is sent, to bring our nation to do as countless other a people before us have done, as spoken to throughout this write-up: agree to the terms the Muslims present; capitulate to their demands, surrender to their wishes, and yield to Islam the tribute it demands we pay to it.
In summary, the said envoy sent, as is the letter, is sent to bring about the end touched on earlier in this essay expounded upon here, by the revered Imam Ibn Kathir:
“It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it superior over all religions even though the idolators [sic] hate (it).”
Islam is the Religion That will dominate over all other Religions
“to make it (Islam) superior over all religions,” It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messengger of Allah said, “Allah made the eastern and western parts of the earth draw near for me [to see], and the rule of my Ummah will extend as far as I saw.”
Imam Ahmad recorded from Tamin Ad-Dari that he said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, “This matter (Islam) will keep spreading as far as the night and day reach, until Allah will not leave a house made of mud or hair, but will make this religion enter it, while bringing might to a mighty person (a Muslim) and humiliation to a disgraced person (who rejects Islam). Might with which Allah elevates Islam (and its people) and disgrace with which Allah humiliates disbelief (and its people).
Tamin Ad-Dari [who was a Christian before Islam] used to say, “I have come to know the meaning of this Hadith in my own people. Those who became Muslims among them acquired goodness, honor and might. Disgrace, humiliation and jizyah befell those who remained disbelievers.” 112
Therefore, Mr. President Elect Trump, beware.
Notes and works cited.
1. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja ‘far Muhammad b. Jarir The History of al-Tabari, Volume IX, The Last Years of The Prophet, The Formation of The State, Translated and Annotated by Ismail K. Poonawala, University of California, Los Angeles, State University of New York Press, 1990; ISBN 0-88706-691-7 ISBN 0-88706-692-5 (pbk.); P.167.
2. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja ‘far Muhammad b. Jarir, The History of al-Tabari , Volume X, The Conquest of Arabia, Translated and Annotated by Fred M. Donner, The University of Chicago, State University of New York Press, 1993, ISBN 0-7917-1071-4; PP.158, 159.
3. Al-Waqidi, Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. ‘Umar , The Life of Muhammad, Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, Translated by Rizwi Faizer, Amal Ismail, and AbdulKader Tayob, Routledge; New York, NY, 1st Publication, 2011; ISBN: 978-0-415-57434-1 (hbk), ISBN: 978-0-203-84458-8 (ebk); P.P. 482, 484, in that order.
4. Ibid, P. 484.
5. As cited and sourced above in #’s 1 & 2.
6. Akram, LT. General A. I., The Sword of Allah, Khalid bin Al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns; Adam Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, India; Edition: 2011; ISBN: 81-7435-521-9; P. 215.
7. Abu Dawud, Sulaiman bin Ash ‘ath , Sunan, Compiled by: Imam Hafiz Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn Ash ‘ath, Ahadith edited and referenced by: Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i, Translated by: Nasiruddin al-Khattab (Canada), Final Review by: Abu Khaliyl (USA); First Edition, July 2008, Darussalam, Global Leader in Islamic Books, Riyadh, Jeddah, Al-Khobar, Sharjah, Lahore, London, Houston, New York)Vol. 5; ISBN: 978-9960-500-11-9 (SET), 978-9960-500-16-4 (Vol. 5); The Book of the Sunnah, P. 162, #4607.
8. Akram, P. 226.
9. Ibid, P. 222.
10. Al-Baladhuri, Abu-l Abbas Ahmad ibn Jabir, The Origins of the Islamic State, Being a Translation of Kitab Futhuh al-Buldan, Translated by Philip Khuri Hitti, First Gorgias Press Edition, 2002, Facsimile reprint of original edition, 1916, Columbia University; ISBN 1-931956-63-4, P. 117.
11. Ibid, P. 122.
12. Akram. P. 222.
13. Waqidi, P. 360.
14. Ibid. P. 361.
16. Ibid, P. 362.
18. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja ‘far Muhammad b. Jarir, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. VIII, The Victory of Islam, Muhammad at Medina, Translated and Annotated by Michael Fishbein, University of California, Los Angeles, State University of New York Press, 1997, Events of Year 7, The Lesser Pilgrimage of Fulfillment, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5 (alk. paper). –ISBN 0-7914-3150-9 (pbk.: alk. Paper); P. 135, 136.
19. Waqidi, P. 362.
20. 20. Ibn Sa’d, Abu ‘Abdulla Muhammad, Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir, English Translation by, S. Moinul Haq, M.A, PH.D assisted by H.K. Ghazanfar, M.A., Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi-1 10002; Vol. II, Parts I & II, (Set of 2 Vols.) ISBN 81-7151-127-9, P. 164, 165, in order.
21. Ibid, p.168.
22. Baladhuri, P. 412.
23. Ibid, P. 178.
24. Ibid, P. 179.
25. Ibid, P. 389.
26. Ibid, P. 390.
27. Ibid, P. 391.
28. Ibid, PP, 392, 393 in order.
29. Ibid, P. 412.
30. Ibid, P. 413.
31. Ibid, P. 417.
32. As-Sallaabee, Dr. ‘Ali Muhammad Muhhamad, The Biography of ABU BAKR AS-SIDDEEQ, Translated by Faisal Shafeeq, DARUSSALAM, First Edition, 2007. [Kalamullah.Com]); ISBN: 9960-9849-1-5, P.331.
34. Ibid, P. 332.
35. Akram, P. 123.
36. Sallaabee, P. 332.
38. Ibid, P. 333.
39. Ibid, as cited in that text.
40. Al-Qurtubi, Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Ansari, TAFSIR, Classical Commentary of the Holy Qur’an, Translated By AISHA BEWLEY, VOLUME I, DAR AL-TAQWA, 2003,ISBN 1-870582-22-5; P. 298.
41. Ibid, P. 300.
42. Ibid, P. 406.
43. Ibid, P. 299.
44. Shafi, Maulana Mufti Muhammad, Ma’ariful Qur’an, A Comprehensive commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Vol. 2, Translated by Muhammad Shamim, Forurth Authorised [sic] Edition, 2007; Revised by Maulana Muhammad Taqi ‘Usmani; Maktaba-e-Darul- ‘Uloom, Karachi, 14 Pakistan: No USBN listed; Surah 4:52, P. 457.
46. Al-Bakhari, Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Isma ‘ail bin Al-Mughirah, Sahih; Vol. 2, Translated by: Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Darussalam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1997; ISBN: 9960-717-31-3 (SET), 9960-717-31-1 (v.1) [sic]; The Book of Funerals [Al-Jana’iz], P. 239, # 1330.
47. Ibid, Vol. 5, ISBN: 9960-717-31-3 (SET), 9960-717-36-4 (v.5); The Book of Al-Maghazi, P. 438 – 439, #4431.
48.Ibn Sa ‘d, Vol. II, P. 317.
49. Qurtubi, P. 411.
51. Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad ad-din Isma ‘il Ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathir, Abu’ l-Fida, TAFSIR [ABRIDGED] V. 4, ABRIDGED BY A GROUP OF SCHOLARS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF SHAYKH SAFIUR-RAHMAN AL-MUBARAKPURI, Second Edition, July, 2003, ISBN 9960-892-71-9 (Set), 9960-892-75-1 (Vol. 4), DARUSSALAM, Global Leader in Islamic Books, Riyadh, Jeddah, Al-Khobar, Sharjah, Lahore, London, Houston, New York. (Qur’anic Text: parenthetical). Surah 9. At-Tawbah (123), P. 546.
52. Ibid, P, 547.
59. Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad ibn Yasar, The Life of Muhammad, Sirat Rasul Allah, Translated by A. Guillaume, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1955/1967/2006; ISBN 0 19 636033 1; P. 649.
60. Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad ad-din Isma ‘il Ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathir, Abu’ l-Fida, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad, Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Vol. IV, Translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick, Reviewed by Dr. Muneer Fareed, Garnet Publishing, Lebanon; 2000, First Edition, Reprinted 2002, 2006; ISBN-13:978-1-85964-145-3, ISBN-10: 1-85964-145-8; P. 104.
61. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja ‘far Muhammad b. Jarir, The History of al-Tabari , Volume XIII, The Conquest of Iraq, Southwestern Persia, and Egypt, Translated and Annotated by Gautier H. A. Juynboll, Bibliotheca Persica, Edited by Ehsan Yar-Shater, SUNY Press, 1989; ISBN 0-88706-876-6. ISBN 0-88706-877-4 (pbk.); P 88, 89, in order.
62. Tabari, Vol. X P.164.
63. Tabari, Vol. XIII, P, 88.
65. Ibid, P. 89.
66. Sallaabee, P. 315.
67. Tabari, Vol. XIII , P. 81.
69. Ibid, P. 82.
74. Ibid, P. 83.
75. Ibid, P. 84.
79. Ibid, P. 86.
80. Ibid, P.86, 87, in order.
81. Ibid, P. 87.
84. Ibid, P. 88.
86. Ibid, P.P. 90, 91, respectively.
87. Ibid, P. 91.
88. Ibn Ishaq, P. 646.
90. Sallaabee, P. 315.
91. Ibn Sa‘d, V. II, P. 237.
92. Hamidullah, Dr. Muhammad, The Battlefields of the Prophet Muhammad, Kitab B havan, New Delhi, Revised, 1992, Publishers, LTD, 2009; ISBN 81-7151-153-8; P. 37.
93. Sallaabee, P. 331, as cited above.
94. Ibn Sa‘d, V. II, P. 235, 236, respectively.
95. Ibid, P. 236.
100. Ibid, P. 237.
102. Sallaabee, P. 332.
103. Ibid. P. 333.
104. Ibn Sa ‘d, V. II, P. 237.
107. Waqidi, P.P. 546 – 549.
108. Ibid, P. 549.
112. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, V. 4, Surah 9. At-Tawbah (32 – 35), PP. 411, 412, 413, in order.